Definitions for Beer

Ice beers:
Beers brewed through a distinctive process patented by the Labatt brewery, whereby the beer is frozen, and the ice crystals then filtered out, leaving a highly concentrated, slightly up-strength product. Examples include Bud Ice, Miller Lite Ice, Icehouse and Molson Ice.

Imported beers:
Beers brewed in foreign countries and exported to the United States. These beers are sometimes at higher prices than superpremium beers and are often the most expensive beers on the market. Examples are Heineken, Molson and Beck’s.

Light beers:
Beers that typically have fewer calories and are less filling than regular beer. In general, their alcoholic content ranges between 3.2% and 3.4% alcohol by weight. Examples are Miller Lite, Michelob Light, Coors Light and Bud Light.

Malt Liquors:
Beer produced typically with a higher alcoholic content; additionally, their unique fermentation process results in a distinctive taste. Examples are Colt 45, Mickey’s Malt and Schlitz Malt Liquor.

These are malt-based flavored alcohol beverages. They are alternatives to conventional types of beer. Though frequently branded with names of established spirits, they derive their alcohol from fermentation rather than distillation. Citrus and other fruit flavors are common with malternatives. A subsegment of the malternative category includes “cooler” type products (i.e., ones that resemble wine coolers but are not wine based), which frequently have flavors designed to mimic mixed drinks like daiquiris, piña coladas and margaritas. Examples of malternatives are: Smirnoff Ice and Bacardi Silver. Examples of cooler-style malternatives are: B&J and Seagram’s Coolers.

These are produced by small brewers that turn out less than 15,000 barrels a year. They are known for their distinctive flavor and the fact that they are brewed to suit local tastes.

Non-Alcoholic Beers:
A beverage made of malt, some corn or rice, and hops, and put through a de-alcoholizing process. Alcohol-free beers must contain less than one-half of one percent of alcohol, and by law cannot be labeled “beer.” Examples are Sharp’s, O’Doul’s and Kingsbury.

Popular Beers:
These beers are sold at prices below those of premium beers and are generally the lowest priced beers on the market. Examples include Old Milwaukee, Busch, Blatz and Milwaukee’s Best.

Premium Beer:
Beer generally produced by the national brewers and intended for the mainstream consumer. These beers are generally sold at prices above those of popular beers. Examples are Budweiser, Miller High Life and Coors.

Superpremium Beers:
Up-scale products positioned as exemplifying the highest quality. They bear higher prices and target the beer connoisseur. Craft beer (also known as specialty beer) belongs in this category, as do brands such as Michelob.

Definitions for Craft Beer

Regional/National Brewery:
A brewery with an annual beer production of between 15,000 and 6,000,000 barrels.

A brewery that produces less than 15,000 barrels of beer per year and sells 75 percent or more of its beer off-site. Microbreweries sell to the public by one or more of the following methods: the traditional three-tier system (brewer to wholesaler to retailer to consumer); the two-tier system (brewer acting as wholesaler to retailer to consumer); and directly to the consumer through carry-outs and/or on-site taproom or restaurant sales.

A restaurant-brewery that sells 25 percent or more of its beer on-site and operates significant food services. The beer is brewed primarily for sale in the restaurant and bar, and is often dispensed directly from the brewery’s storage tanks. Where allowed by law, brewpubs often sell beer to-go and/or distribute to off-site accounts.

Taproom Brewery:
A professional brewery that sells 25 percent or more of its beer on-site and does not operate significant food services. The beer is brewed primarily for sale in the taproom, and is often dispensed directly from the brewery’s storage tanks. Where allowed by law, taproom breweries often sell beer to-go and/or distribute to off-site accounts.

Definitions for Bottled Water

According to the International Bottled Water Association (IBWA):

  • “Water is called ‘bottled water’ if it meets all federal and state standards and is sealed in a container and sold for human consumption.”
  • “Some bottled water includes carbonation, which can occur naturally in the water or be added by the bottler.”
  • “Flavors, extracts and essences – derived from spice or fruit – can be added to bottled water, but these additions must comprise less than one percent by weight of the final product. Beverages containing more than the one percent by weight flavor limit are soft drinks, not bottled water.”
  • “Bottled water cannot contain sweeteners or additives (other than flavors, extracts or essences).”
  • “It must be calorie-free and sugar-free. In addition, most bottled waters are sodium-free.”

Imported Water:
Includes both non-sparkling and sparkling waters that are produced outside the United States. Imports typically cost more than domestic bottled water.

Non-Sparkling Water:
Water without carbonation, including distilled water, purified water, spring water and well water. Non-sparkling water can also be referred to as still or flat water.

Retail PET Water:
Non-sparkling water in 1.5-liter or smaller PET bottles. (See PET under “Packaging Types” below.)

Sparkling Water:
Water with carbonation, which may be naturally occurring or artificial.

Club Soda/Seltzer Water:
Carbonated water produced by soft drink fillers (e.g., Canada Dry, Seagram, Schweppes and White Rock).

Domestic Sparkling Water:
Carbonated water produced by bottled water fillers (e.g., Artesia, Calistoga, Poland Spring and Saratoga).

Home- and office-delivery (HOD):
Bottled water, mostly in three- and five-gallon containers, that is delivered to offices and other business sites (commercial delivery) as well as residences (home delivery). Definition of HOD has broadened in recent years to include "one-way" pre-filled five-gallon jugs sold through retail locations (like Home Depot) and the HOD exchange business, in which consumers drop off an empty "returnable" water jug and pick up a pre-filled replacement jug at outlets like gas stations and convenience stores.

Vended self service:
When a customer brings an empty 1, 2, 3 or 5-gallon bottle to a refill station (also referred to as a "vending machine") and fills the bottle themselves. (Differs from HOD modes mentioned above in that vended self-service involves the customer filling up their own containers.)

Definitions for Value-Added Water

Alkaline Water:
Bottled water that usually has a pH of at least 8.0, but also includes waters such as Core Hydration that have a “neutral” pH of 7.4, but which are marketed as alkaline (or, in the case of Core, “perfectly balanced.”)

Essence Water:
Unsweetened, non-sparkling water to which non-caloric flavoring is added.

Flavored Water:
Non-sparkling water that contains flavoring and a non-caloric sweetener.

Definitions for Carbonated Soft Drinks

Regular CSDs:
Flavored carbonated liquid refreshment beverages sweetened with sugar or high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS). Typical flavors include cola, heavy citrus and root beer.

Diet CSDs:
No- or low-calorie CSDs usually have similar flavor profiles to regular CSDs but substitute one of various natural or artificial sweeteners (or blends thereof) for sugar or HFCS.

Flavored CSDs:
Beverage Marketing Corporation categorizes all non-colas as flavored CSDs. A cherry cola would be characterized as a cola, not as a flavored CSD.

Definitions for Coffee

A type of coffee (coffea arabica) that grows optimally at more than 3,000 but less than 6,000 feet in regions with a mean annual temperature of approximately 70°F and no freezing. The most highly prized type of coffee bean, arabica is considered to yield more flavorful coffee than lower growths. It is more delicate and contains less caffeine than the other major type, robusta (see below). Arabica was the only type of coffee consumed before the end of the 19th century. It grows in central and east Africa, in India and throughout Latin American and to some degree in Indonesia.

A concentrated coffee beverage produced by pressurized extraction from finely ground coffee that is usually dark roasted. The resulting dark coffee is generally served in a small demitasse (French for “half cup”).

An espresso-based beverage named for the robes of Capuchin monks. It consists of one part espresso, one part steamed milk and one part foamed milk.

A beverage usually consisting of one part espresso to three parts steamed milk. In the U.S., it is often topped with foamed milk.

Organic coffee:
Coffee certified by independent organizations as processed, stored and roasted with no use of synthetic chemical pesticides or artificial fertilizers.

Ready-to-Drink Coffee:
Ready-to-Drink Coffees are packaged coffees that may have a flavor added as well as cream/sugar or a sugar substitute.

A type of coffee that grows at lower elevations and in moister conditions than arabica (see above), robusta is considered to result in harsher, bitterer coffee. Robusta also contains twice as much caffeine as arabica. Ugandans chewed coffea canephora, but the white settlers in the Belgian Congo realized that it could be used as an alternative to arabica. At the time hemileia vastatrix, a leaf rust, was ravaging the arabica crop. Robusta proved to be more disease-resistant. Named for its growth properties, robusta also could thrive anywhere below 3,000 feet and trees could produce beans more quickly than arabica. It grows in Central and West Africa and throughout Southeast Asia. It also grows to some extent in Brazil, where it is called Conillon.

Specialty coffee:

Also known as “gourmet” or “premium” coffee, specialty coffee is made from what are considered to be high quality, defect-free beans from areas with climates well suited for coffee production. According to the Long Beach, California-based Specialty Coffee Association of America (SCAA), which sets standards for specialty coffee production, these coffees “tend to feature distinctive flavors, which are shaped by the unique characteristics of the soil that produces them.”

Just as specialty beers are thought of as “better beers,” specialty coffees are said to come from “better beans,” or “green jewels,” as they were dubbed by Erna Knutsen, a buyer for B.C. Ireland. “In 1974 the Tea & Coffee Trade Journal featured an interview with Knutsen, in which she coined the term specialty coffees to refer to the Celebes Kalossi, Ethiopian Yrgacheffee, and Yemen Mocha she sold,” Mark Pendergrast writes in Uncommon Grounds: The History of Coffee and How It Transformed Our World. “This term would come to define the nascent gourmet coffee movement. Knutsen lamented the poor quality of mass-marketed coffee but predicted a bright future for specialty coffee.”

The SCAA suggests it has realized that promise, describing specialty coffee as “one of the fastest growing foodservice markets in the world, netting $8.4 billion a year [in 2002] in the U.S. alone.” As defined by the trade organization, specialty coffee comprises a small niche atop the larger commercial coffee market.

Virtually all specialty coffee is arabica. The rest of the coffee market consists of lower grade arabica and robusta.

Definitions for Dairy Alternatives

Beverages marketed as alternatives to or substitutes for dairy milk include those made from a variety of plants, nuts and grains. While soymilk may be the most established, non-dairy beverages encompass a multitude of “milk” options like almond, coconut, cashews, flax, hemp, oats and rice.

Almond Milk:
Beverages made from almonds. Leading brands include Blue Diamond Breeze and Silk Pure Almond.

Coconut Milk:
Coconut milk, not to be confused with coconut water, is made with shredded coconut meat, or what Silk calls coconut cream, and water. Coconut water, in contrast, is the liquid that forms inside young coconuts. Coconut water is not considered a dairy alternative beverage; it’s often pegged as a natural sports beverage or New Age alternative. Silk Pure Almond is a major brand.

Flax Milk:
Flax, a fiber- and seed-bearing herb, contains omega-3 fatty acids, which some claim may help reduce consumers’ risk of heart disease, stroke and cancer, has been used in products ranging from clothing to breakfast cereal as well as non-dairy beverages. Flax USA’s Flaxmilk and Good Karma Flax Milk are examples of flax milk.

Hemp Milk:
Hempmilk makers use the edible seeds of Cannabis sativa L. Though often confused with marijuana, seeds derived from the hemp plant have no psychoactive properties. What hemp seeds do have, according to hemp milk purveyors, are ample plant-based protein, Omega-3 & 6 essential fatty acids, amino acids, vitamins and minerals. Living Harvest’s Tempt line typifies the segment.

Rice Milk:
Beverages derived from rice include Hain Celestial’s Rice Dream.

Beverages made from soy beans, including unflavored (or “original”) as well as flavored version such as chocolate and vanilla. Unsweetened iterations are common. Silk is the leading brand; others include 8th Continent and WestSoy.

Soy/Fruit Blends:
These combine soymilk and fruit beverages. Odwalla offerings with soy content exemplify the segment.

Definitions for Energy Drinks

Energy drinks comprise a key component of the nutrient-enhanced drink category.

Energy drinks claim to have health benefits over and above those provided by sports drinks and refreshment functional drinks. Energy drinks promise specific attributes, such as those promised by segment dominator Red Bull: “increased physical endurance, improved reaction speed and concentration, increased mental alertness, an improved overall feeling of well-being, a stimulated metabolism and increased stamina.”

Like other nutrient-enhanced drinks, energy drinks are not marketed as fluid replacement drinks as is Gatorade and the rest of the sports drink segment.

Taurine is probably the most distinctive, and perhaps important, ingredient in energy drinks although not all energy drinks contain it. The fact that not all energy drinks contain the same ingredients allows marketers to differentiate their products from competitors’. Japanese research showing the cardiovascular benefits of the amino acid was one of the reasons why Red Bull was established in the first place.

Healthy Energy Drinks:
A subset of the energy drink category, healthy energy drinks are distinguished from their regular counterparts in targeting more women and older consumers. This is often done through more “natural” forms of caffeine such as guarana or via lower amounts of sugar or “more nutritious” sweeteners such as honey. Along with less macho positioning, these drinks tend to be sold in natural food stores or supermarkets and not as much in convenience/gas stores – which are the main province of conventional energy drinks. Examples include Hydrive, FRS, Steaz Energy, Inko’s White Tea Energy, Sambazon Amazon Energy and Xenergy.

Definitions for Fruit Beverages

Beverages, including juice cocktails and products bearing the suffix –ade (e.g., grapeade), containing less than 100% juice. Drinks generally dilute fruit juice with water and contain sweeteners. The Nutrition Labeling and Education Act requires beverage manufacturers to list the percentage of juice content on labels.

Beverages comprising 100% juice, either from a single fruit or from a blend.

Chilled, Ready-to-Serve:
Chilled, Ready-to-Serve: These juices and drinks may be made from either frozen concentrate or pasteurized juice. They may be packaged in paperboard cartons (the preferred type for juice), glass containers (the choice for drinks) or plastic bottles. These beverages, which are kept refrigerated, are usually stocked in stores’ dairy sections.

Fresh squeezed juice, packaged in paperboard cartons or glass or plastic bottles, which has not been processed. Having been neither frozen nor pasteurized, this highly perishable juice type has a short shelf-life.

Frozen Concentrate:
Juice from which water has been removed prior to freezing. From-concentrate juice has been reconstituted from concentrate and pasteurized before packaging. Not-from-concentrate juice has never been concentrated.

Premium Kids’ Beverages:
These purport to be healthy alternatives to the low-priced, sugary bellywash and orange and apple juices that traditionally have comprised the kids’ beverage segment. Tend to be premium priced and appeal to higher-income moms. Examples include Honest Kids, Rockin’ Water, Vita Coco Kids, Wat-aah!, First Juice, The Switch, Green Mustache, Sneakz and Good2Grow. (Note: As implied, premium kids’ beverages are usually fruit beverages but can include other categories.)

Juices and drinks requiring no refrigeration before opening. Glass is the preferred package type for shelf-stable fruit juice; aseptic paper composite packages are the preferred type for fruit drinks.

Technically fruit drinks since they contain less than 100% juice, nectars nonetheless contain higher juice content than traditional fruit drinks. Nectars, which are targeted to Hispanics, tend towards non-citrus and tropical flavors like, papaya, guava, banana and pineapple. However, non-tropical flavors such as peach and pear are prominent as well.

Definitions for Milk

Whole Milk:
Whole milk has to contain no less then 3.25% milkfat and 8.25% solids-not-fat. Addition of vitamins A and D is allowed. If enhanced, vitamin A has to be at least 2,000 International Units (IU) per quart and vitamin D at least 400 IU. Flavoring ingredients may be added.

Lowfat Milk:
Lowfat milk must be comprised of 0.5, 1.5 or 2.0% milkfat and no less than 8.25% solids-not-fat. Vitamin A must be in a quantity of 2,000 IU per quart. Vitamin D does not have to be integrated. If added, at least 400 IU must be present. Flavoring ingredients may be added.

Skim or Nonfat Milk:
Skim or nonfat milk is comprised of a maximum of 0.5% milkfat, and 8.25% solids-not fat. An amount of 2,000 IU of vitamin A must be present per quart. If vitamin D is added it has to be equivalent to 400 IU. Flavoring ingredients may be added.

Cultured Milks:
Cultured milks are generated from either whole, lowfat, skim or nonfat milk cultured with an appropriate characterizing bacteria. The formation of particular characterizing ingredients and lactic-acid-producing bacteria allows this type of milk to be called “cultured buttermilk,” “cultured lowfat buttermilk,” or “cultured skim milk (nonfat) buttermilk” according to the quantity of milkfat in the final product.

Definitions for New Age/Wellness/Functional Beverages

The beverage category comprised of sports drinks, retail PET water, single-serve fruit drinks, sparkling water, premium soda and RTD tea and coffee. Fresh-packed juice, vegetable/fruit juice blends, smoothies and nutrient enhanced drinks constitute important sub-segments of the New Age category and fuel much of its recent growth. The nutrient enhanced group includes RTD teas as well as single-serve fruit beverages. The major beverage segments comprising the New Age category are as follows.

Premium Soda:
Premium Soda is a carbonated beverage containing a sugar concentrate base, which often carries a unique and sophisticated imagery and a premium price tag. It also includes all natural soda, which, for the most part, contains all natural ingredients, including no artificial colors, flavors or preservatives.

Ready-to-Drink Coffee:
Ready-to-Drink Coffees are coffees that may have a flavor added as well as cream/sugar or a sugar substitute

Ready-to-Drink Tea:
Ready-to-Drink Teas can be hot-fill (e.g., Snapple) or cold-fill (e.g., Lipton Brisk and Nestea) products. Freshly brewed, pasteurized hot-fill teas do not contain preservatives. Hot-fill processes are more difficult to implement, but are thought to produce better tasting tea. Cold-fill products, on the other hand, contain preservatives and carry lower prices than hot-fill drinks, but afford beverage manufacturers packaging flexibility often precluded by hot-fill drinks. This segment includes nutrient-enhanced teas such as SoBe and Arizona Rx Herbals that are hot-fill but which also contain herbal supplements as an added value.

Retail PET Water:
Retail PET Water is non-sparkling water in 1.5-liter or less PET bottles. PET is short for polyethylene terephthalate and is often interchangeably used with plastic. This segment does not include 1- and 2-gallon jugs that are usually packaged in opaque high-density polyethylene (HDPE) plastic. It also does not include the multi-gallon jugs of bottled water delivered to homes and offices. Single-Serve Water also includes vitamin- and mineral-enhanced water, sweetened flavored water and unsweetened essence water.

Single-Serve Fruit Beverages:
Single-Serve Fruit Beverages are fruit juices and fruit drinks in 24-ounce and under size bottles and cans (gable-top packages and aseptic drink boxes are excluded). They come in various flavors, either alone or in combination with other, often exotic, juices. These juices tend to be shelf-stable, but this is not necessary for inclusion in the segment. The segment includes sparkling juices, which are a combination of sparkling mineral water and natural fruit juice. The single-serve fruit beverage segment also includes superpremium juice (see below). Nutrient-enhanced fruit drinks are juice drinks fortified with the same hot-button herbs contained in nutrient-enhanced teas.

Sparkling Water:
Sparkling Water is all sparkling water – flavored or unflavored, domestic or imported – but not club soda or seltzer.

Sports Beverages:
Sports Beverages are beverages positioned and marketed as fluid replacement or thirst quencher drinks, as well as being high-energy drinks that help the body to maintain its electrolyte balance.

Energy Drinks:
Energy Drinks feature amino acids, vitamins and an ample amount of caffeine (and/or guarana, which contains caffeine). Positioned purely as functional drinks (as opposed to refreshment drinks), these drinks are often packaged in distinctive “slim cans.”

Kombucha is a sweetened tea to which a SCOBY (a symbiosis of bacteria and yeasts) is added. The brew is allowed to ferment, which produces that vinegary taste. Kombucha is said to confer several beneficial health properties including detoxification and strengthened immunity.

Vegetable/Fruit Juice Blends/Fruit Drinks:
Vegetable/Fruit Juice Blends/Fruit Drinks combine unusual pairings of juices. The segment is dominated by one brand, Campbell’s V8. Campbell markets both 100% juice blends of vegetable and fruits as well as vegetable/fruit combinations that are substantially less than 100% juice. Vegetable/fruit juice blends/fruit drinks comprise shelf-stable varieties: chilled mélanges of fruits and vegetables are counted as fresh packaged juices.

Coconut water:
Coconut water is the juice that comes from the inside of young coconuts – those harvested at about five to seven months of age. Such liquid contains electrolytes, vitamins, minerals and other nutrients. Coconut water is not the same thing as coconut milk, which is derived from mature coconuts and contains both coconut water as well as liquid expelled from the coconut meat.

Probiotics are “products containing live microorganisms in sufficient numbers to alter the microflora in a compartment of the body (stomach, intestine, or other) and thereby exert a beneficial health effect.” Thus, so-called probiotics, which are found mostly in yogurts and other cultured dairy products in the U.S., are “friendly” bacteria that are said to aid in digestion. These friendly bacteria populate the gut and help to counteract disease. Bacteria-infused products are also touted as an antidote to the side effects caused by antibiotics. The main probiotic brands include Lifeway, GoodBelly, Pre and KeVita.

Relaxation Beverages:
Relaxation Beverages, which are often referred to as anti-energy drinks, have a dual purpose – depending on the brand – of sleep induction and stress reduction. The choice of ingredients somewhat determines, or is determined by, the brand positioning. Specifically, melatonin, which marketers are increasingly shunning due to FDA scrutiny, is associated with inducing sleep. L-theanine, a compound found in tea (Camellia sinensis) – most prominently, green tea – is reputed to provide stress reduction. The latter is sometimes marketed as providing “focused energy,” as opposed to the supposed untamed “crash and burn” of caffeine- and sugar-laced energy drinks. Other components of relaxation beverages, such as kava kava and valerian, seem to offer both sleep induction and stress reduction properties.

Protein Drink:
The Protein Drink segment traces its roots to powders, often packed in large multi-pound “tubs.” RTD protein drinks usually include 20 or more grams of whey protein per bottle. A by-product of the cheese-making process, whey is usually dehydrated and concentrated, at which stage fat and lactose are removed, leaving a high-protein, low-fat powder. Chocolate and Vanilla are popular flavors. More recently, some milk processors have touted their milk-based high-protein concoctions as superior to the principal whey-based protein drink, Muscle Milk.
Meal Replacement Drinks:
Beverages containing sufficient or purportedly sufficient calories and nutrients to substitute for a solid food meal.

Definitions for Sports Beverages

These are drinks that are positioned and marketed as fluid replacement or thirst quencher beverages. The essential characteristic distinguishing sports beverages from other beverages is their capability to simultaneously hydrate and energize. Sports beverages’ mixtures of carbohydrates and electrolytes facilitate this functional achievement.

Basically, carbohydrates supply energy, while electrolytes, such as sodium and potassium, help to maintain fluid balance. Research indicates that the most likely reason electrolytes are depleted in sweat is to compensate for their rising concentration in the bloodstream. The blood/electrolyte ratio rises when an individual takes in less fluid than is eliminated in sweat. Gatorade and other brands claim that ingesting a sports drink, due to its sodium content, allows one to retain more fluid after a workout than imbibing water. The presence of carbohydrates in Gatorade and other sports drinks purportedly gives energy to muscles that plain water cannot. A drink that contains excessive carbohydrates or electrolytes can hinder fluid absorption. This explains why sports drinks are usually more diluted than fruit beverages and carbonated soft drinks. Plain water and sports beverages both appeal to active consumers, and both hydrate. A close look at the components of a typical sports drink (e.g., Gatorade) reveals certain advantages; for sports beverages, hydration is just the beginning. Water replaces lost fluids, regulates body temperature and acts as a carrier for carbohydrates and minerals. Sweeteners such as sucrose and glucose/fructose provide the energy (carbohydrate) source. Citric acid provides tartness to balance the sweet taste and gives the product a clean “mouth feel” as well as lower pH levels for processing. Electrolytes, including sodium chloride, sodium citrate and mono-potassium phosphate, together with carbohydrates speed the body’s absorption of liquid. Perhaps in order to exploit an edge over water that flavors lend, sports beverage purveyors have increased the range of flavors on offer. In recent years, Gatorade has introduced new sub-lines to its Thirst Quencher line – Fierce, A.M., Frost, X-Factor, Rain, Lemonade and Xtremo – designed to appeal to consumers other than the traditional 18- to 24-year-old male audience. Coca-Cola has also introduced new flavors with catchy names to attract its core teenage and young adult target. Sports beverage makers have sought to improve packaging in order to facilitate drinkability for people on the go.


The term isotonic is often loosely used to describe many sports drinks, but not all fluid replacement drinks are technically isotonic beverages.

To be isotonic, a product must replace lost fluids, electrolytes and glucose in similar concentrations to existing body fluids without causing swelling or shrinkage of cells. Sports beverages’ electrolytes help maintain fluid balance, but may not achieve isotonic equilibrium.

While a sports beverage can be pasteurized and hot filled, its isotonic stability is not guaranteed. Depending on its formulation, it may revert to hypertonic beverage status as soon as 30 days after mixing. A hypertonic beverage will cause the cells to shrink and not permit an even assimilation of the fluids into the body. Carbonated soft drinks and many popular sports drinks are considered hypertonic beverages. However, hypertonic status does not preclude functions such as energy enhancement, hydration (even if not resulting in fluid balance) and thirst quenching refreshment.

Definitions for Superpremium and HPP Juices

These include superfruit juices (e.g., açaí) as well as fruit juices that are bottled in single-serve containers and shipped fresh (or lightly pasteurized) rather than reconstituted from concentrate or chemically preserved.

HPP juices are a new subset of beverages that employ high-pressure pascalization (HPP), a process which treats beverages with pressure rather than with nutrient-killing heat. These often expense juices have fostered a new high-price tier in the refrigerated juice section.

Definitions for Tea

Ready-to-Drink Tea:
These packaged teas may be freshly brewed, but many are not. They often are flavored and are generally intended for cold consumption. Examples of hot-fill RTD teas include Snapple and Arizona; examples of cold-fill teas include Lipton Brisk and Nestea Cool.

Definitions for Wine

Sparkling fermented apple juice.

Fortified Wine:
Wine that has an additional grape brandy that raises the alcohol content. Examples include Port and Sherry.

Sparkling Wine:
Effervescent table wine. Champagne is an example. (Only the sparkling wine that comes from the Champagne region of France is entitled to use the name.)

Table Wine:
Unfortified, non-sparkling wine generally suitable for serving with food. Table wine usually averages 12% alcohol by volume. The vast majority of wine consumed in the United States belongs in this category.

Varietal Wine:
Wine that is labeled with the predominant grape used to produce the wine. For example, wines made from Pinot Noir grapes are labeled “Pinot Noir.”

Wine that is flavored with aromatic herbs. This aperitif wine is dry or sweet and is often used in mixed drinks.

Wine Cooler:
Wine that is carbonated and usually includes fruit juice.

Definitions for Spirits

Flavored spirits product containing not less than 2½% by weight sugar, dextrose, levulose or a combination thereof made by mixing or redistilling any class or type of spirits with or over fruits, flowers, plants or pure juices therefrom or other natural flavoring materials or with extracts derived from infusions, percolation or maceration of such materials.

Whiskey Liqueur :
is broadly defined as a member of the liqueur family where whiskey is the base spirit and an influential flavor in the beverage, in addition the spirits ABV (Alcohol by Volume) is below 40%. Whereas any adulterated whiskey at 40% ABV or above is placed within the individual whisk(e)y category. On a flavor basis the most noticeable difference between whiskey and whiskey liqueur is that the latter is usually considerably sweeter.

Bourbon Whiskey :
Whiskey produced in the U.S. at not exceeding 80% alcohol by volume (160 proof) from a fermented mash of not less than 51 percent corn and stored at not more than 62.5% alcohol by volume (125 proof) in charred new oak containers for 2 years or more

Gin :
Spirits with a main characteristic flavor derived from juniper berries produced by distillation or mixing of spirits with juniper berries and other aromatics or extracts derived from these materials and bottled at not less than 40% alcohol by volume (80 proof)

Brandy :
Spirits distilled from the fermented juice, mash or wine of fruit or from its residue at less than 95% alcohol by volume (190 proof) having the taste, aroma and characteristics generally attributed to brandy and bottled at not less than 40% alcohol by volume (80 proof)

Rum :
- Spirits distilled from the fermented juice of sugar cane, sugar cane syrup, sugar cane molasses or other sugar cane by-products at less than 95% alcohol by volume (190 proof) having the taste, aroma and characteristics generally attributed to rum and bottled at not less than 40% alcohol by volume (80 proof)

Tequila :
Spirits distilled in Mexico in compliance with the laws and regulations of the Mexican Government from a fermented mash derived principally from the Agave Tequilana Weber (“blue” variety), with or without additional fermentable substances having the taste, aroma and characteristics generally attributed to Tequila and bottled at not less than 40% alcohol by volume (80 proof)

Mezcal :
Spirits distilled in Mexico in compliance with the laws and regulations of the Mexican Government from a fermented mash derived from the Mezcal plant, having the taste, aroma and characteristics generally attributed to Mescal/Mezcal and bottled at not less than 40% alcohol by volume (80 proof)

Scotch Whisky :
Unblended or blended whisky manufactured in Scotland in compliance with the laws of the United Kingdom

Canadian Whisky :
Unblended or blended whisky manufactured in Canada in compliance with its laws

Irish Whiskey :
Unblended or blended whiskey manufactured in the Republic of Ireland or in Northern Ireland in compliance with their laws

Vodka :
Neutral spirits distilled or treated after distillation with charcoal or other materials so as to be without distinctive character, aroma, taste or color

Definitions for Distribution Channels

Club Stores:
Wholesale warehouse outlets (e.g., Sam’s Club) requiring membership in order to purchase items for either personal or business use.

Convenience/Gas Stores:
Generally high-priced, retail chain outlets with more limited offerings than larger grocery stores frequented by consumers for small purchases (e.g., 7-Eleven, the Pantry); may sell both fountain and packaged beverages; often combined with gas stations (e.g., BP Express, Exxon Shop, Shell Food Mart, Texaco Food Mart).

Drug Stores:
Pharmaceutical chains (e.g., Duane Reade, Rite Aid) that also sell general merchandise.

Various, often independent, typically small stores, including so-called “mom and pop” locations, gourmet and specialty food stores; also includes non-traditional retail outlets such as video stores.

Diverse channel served by companies (e.g., Aramark, HMSHost, Sodexho) that specialize in supplying large-scale institutions and businesses such as fast-food restaurants, cruise lines, airlines, school and university cafeterias, hospitals, hotel chains, workplace cafeterias, sporting and recreation venues, kiosks and other away-from-home venues for ultimate sale to consumers.

Mass Merchandisers:
Large-scale discount stores (e.g., Wal-Mart, Kmart) that sell general merchandise.

Off Premise:
Retail stores selling packaged products for consumption at home, including club stores, health food stores, big box stores such as Home Depot and Lowes, convenience/gas stores, drug stores, down-the-street or “mom & pop” stores, mass merchandisers, military and online retailers.

On Premise:
Restaurants, bars and fast-food outlets selling packaged or dispensed products to be consumed on site.

Large chain-operated food stores (e.g., Kroger).

Cold cup or packaged product sold via a machine capable of dispensing multiple beverages using a slot and push button system to deposit money and make change; machines typically come in several different configurations with different vending capabilities; machines are frequently dedicated to a specific beverage type (e.g., carbonated soft drinks) or beverage company.

Definitions for Sales Dollars

Wholesale Dollars:
Wholesale dollars bases market size on the price that the retailer pays.

Retail Dollars:
Retail Dollars bases market size on the price that the consumer pays.

Definitions for Seven Regions

Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, N. Carolina, S. Carolina, Tennessee and Virginia.

East Central:
Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Michigan, Ohio, W. Virginia and Wisconsin.

Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont and Washington, D.C.

Arizona, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas.

Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon and Washington.

West Central:
Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, N. Dakota and S. Dakota.

Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Utah and Wyoming.

Definitions for Four Regions

Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, N. Carolina, Oklahoma, S. Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia and West Virginia.

Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, N. Dakota, Ohio, S. Dakota and Wisconsin.

Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont and Washington, D.C.

Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington and Wyoming.